Media Planning is a very important component of the
Marketing Strategy of an organization. Media Planning is defined as
"Process of designing a scheduling plan that shows how advertising time
and space in selected media and
vehicles contribute to the achievement of marketing
objectives in an advertising campaign".
Media planning, in general terms, is a tool that allows the advertiser to select the most appropriate media to communicate
the message in sufficient frequency towards the maximum number of potential customers at the lowest cost.
The two most basic words in Media Planning are:
A medium is a carrier and
deliverer of Advertisements. It is a broad general
category of carries such as Newspapers, Television, Radio, Internet,
Outdoor, Direct Mail, etc.
* Vehicle: It is a
specific carrier within a Media category. So
a Zee TV would be the vehicle in the category of TV.
Many a time a specific programs or sections within a medium may be
termed as a vehicle. For example, a "Kyunki saas bhi…" on Star Plus
would be the vehicle in the Television
Types of Media used in Advertising
The types of media used in Advertising can be broadly classified into:
o Traditional or Mass Media: TV, Radio. Idea to reach large audience.
Niche Media: Cable TV, Direct mail, etc. Reach the target audience with specific demographics, narrowly defined target audience.
* Non-Conventional Media: Internet.
Media Planning Procedure
mentioned earlier, Media planning is a component of the
Marketing strategy of the organization. Therefore, marketing
considerations must precede Media Planning. Media planning on the whole
answers a lot of questions like "How many
prospects do I need to Reach?". "In which medium should I
place the Ads?", etc.
In the media strategy the target audience must be defined more clearly and thoroughly.
1. Target audience and advertisement must fit each other.
a. Kind of argumentation, esthetics, used language etc.
b. Appropriate prominent endorsers (e.g., Shah Rukh Khan for Pepsi)
communicate to different target audiences with different
objectives, e.g., Increase product sales in group 14-29, Increase brand
awareness and image in group 30+
3. Reaching target audiences by mass media advertising means:
a. Target audience of advertisement and
B. (Factual) audience of vehicle
To increase the value derived by the advertiser, the intersection 'B' should be increased by identifying
the target audience of the brand and the audience reached by the brand.
Some Essential Terms in Media Planning
main objectives of Advertising are: Inform, Persuade and Remind. Media
Planning is the subset of
the Advertising Strategy, which in turn is the subset of
the overall Marketing Strategy. In the field of Media Planning one
encounters the following terms quite often:
: The proportion of the audience should be reached with
the advertising message during a specified period. It is the number of
different recipients exposed to at least one advertisement during
the specified period of a campaign (usually four weeks)
o Frequency: How frequently are the recipients being exposed to message? In other words it is the
average number of times an advertisement reaches each recipient in a given period.
o Weight: The amount of total advertising is needed to accomplish advertising objectives.
The amount of advertising budget being allocated over
the period. There are basic types of ways in which the advertising
budget is allocated: Continuous Scheduling, Pulsing and Flighting.
Use of Traditional Media in the Online space
there were hyperlinks. Next there were buttons. Then we had tiles.
Following that there were
banners. Now we have pay-per-click search. These have
served as the tools used in advertising in the online space.
the years, a lot of other ad formats have come online. We've got large
display ads that take
prominent positions on a web page or are served in the
transition of clicking from one page to another. There is streaming
audio that is served either as part of a banner; or it is served either
before or after
an audio contents stream. And there is video.
the demand for these formats grows by the day, it is quite interesting
to note that these formats
have originated in the traditional offline format. The
online arena now offers advertisers to use in one medium many of the
tools and strategies used in the traditional arena.
The web has more or less become an environment of
convergence. Broadband has brought to online the ability to generate and
serve an increasingly complex array of advertising formats.
Lets us study a few traditional media and see how they now play an important role in the online arena.
Streaming video content is now a given online. Though
there are still the occasional buffering issues, most online video
content now serves as smooth as an early Spring run-off.
Many players in the television industry are now offering
their content online in the video format and charging the users for the
same. Mainly the news channels like NDTV, Aaj Tak, etc use this
deliver the content and it is a very sound business
model for them. At the same time some select portion of a particular
event or program is available online free. For example, select clippings
'Performances' in the Filmfare Awards were available
free on their website.
Video is going to become
the preeminent online ad format in the months and years to come. But
questions about how it is to be evaluated alongside the
rest of the online media communications package remains to be determined
Large display ads and banners have existed in the online
space for quite some time now. And now with more data transfer ability
these can be put to better use than just as an online banner or display.
have to be treated differently. Not all online ad
vehicles can be treated like print.
A lot of
prints content in the online format have a shelf life more than the
traditional medium. With
more and more people using the search engines, the data
that may be old yet relevant to the user could be ideal for
advertisements. Therefore, an article on, say "Different types of
techniques" would have a longer life, so would the
advertisement on that web page.
However, for a
property that behaves a lot like print (e.g financial news and newspaper
cetera), online inventory should be sold much like print
inventory: a fixed position that exists on a page for the life of the
Streaming audio content is now online. Though there are
still the occasional buffering issues, most online audio content are now
easy to access. There are a lot of people who now stream audio content
on a regular basis. According to one of the leading
research agencies in US, there are over 34 million people who have
listened to the radio online or have streamed audio content in the
course of a month;
nearly 12 million of them do so every day.
in India the popularity of Radio on the Internet is relatively low.
However, a large scope does exists in the field on online Radio and
What keeps the Advertisers away from the online world?
the dot com boom, online media planners were convinced that the online
medium had earned its
place at the brand marketing table, alongside other
media. Post-dot com bust, media planners came to realize that purchase
habits of the consumers did not change so did the well-established
business models overnight.
Just as abruptly as it started, the dot com land grab
ended in late 2000. Most brand marketers fled from the online media
space upon realizing that web surfers weren't so overwhelmed with glee
sight of one of their ad banners that they would stop
whatever they were doing, click, and buy their product immediately.
The pendulum swung the other way - big time. Many online media execs went back to traditional However, online media has the ability to brand and that the changing media landscape would in the
planning. Agencies rolled back their online media capabilities until they were almost nonexistent.
future force most brand marketers to reconsider online media as a viable channel.